Journal of Alzheimer’s disease In Press.2020
Studies on the bottom-up and top-down neural information flow alterations in neurodegeneration.
Abolfazl Alipour, Azadeh Mozh-dehfarahbakhsh, Saba Nouri, Peyman Petramfar, Mahshid Tahamtan, Ali-Mohammad kamali, Rao KS,
Background: A proper explanation for perceptual symptoms in neurodegen-erative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is still lacking.
Objective: This study aimed at investigating the imbalance between ‘bottom-up’ and ‘top-down’ information flow (IF) and processing in PD in relation with visual hallucination symptoms.
Methods: Here, we looked at bottom-up and top-down IF markers using resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) data from PD patients analyzed through three different IF measures (direct Directed Transfer Function (dDTF), full frequency Directed Transfer Function (ff-DTF), and renormalized Partial Directed Coherence (rPDC).
Results: We observed an increased gamma band IF and a reduced beta band
IF in PD patients compared to healthy controls. Additionally, we noticed a reduced theta band IF in PD patients using dDTF as a measure of IF. By source localizing the EEG activity of the PD patients and healthy controls, we looked at the alterations of IF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of PD patients as well.
Conclusion: In line with previous studies, our results suggest that the delicate balance between bottom-up and top-down IF is disrupted in Parkinson’s dis-ease potentially contributing to the cognitive symptoms of PD patients.
Frontiers in Inmunology. 2020 Jul 9;11:1548.
Role of Immune Dysregulation in Increased Mortality Among a Specific Subset of COVID-19 Patients and Immune-Enhancement Strategies for Combatting Through Nutritional Supplements.
Kosagi-Sharaf Rao, Vaddi Suryaprakash, Rajappa Senthil-kumar, Senthilkumar Preethy, Shojiro Katoh, Nobunao Ike-waki and
Samuel J. K. Abraham.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been causing varying se-verities of illness. Some are asymptomatic and some develop severe disease leading to mortality across ages. This contrast triggered us explore the causes, with the background that a vaccine for effective immunization or a drug to tackle COVID-19 is not too close to reality. We have discussed strategies to combat COVID-19 through immune enhancement, using simple measures including nutritional supple-
ments. Discussion: A literature search on mortality-related comorbid conditions was performed. For those conditions, we analyzed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could cause the draining of the immune reservoir. We also analyzed the immune markers necessary for the defense mechanism/immune surveillance against COVID-19, especially through simple means including immune enhancing nutri-tional supplement consumption, and we suggest strategies to combat COVID-19. Major comorbid conditions associated with increased mortality include cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, being im-munocompromised by cancer, and severe kidney disease with a senile immune system. Consumption of Aureobasidium pullulans strain (AFO-202) beta 1,3-1,6 glucan supported enhanced IL-8, sFAS mac-rophage activity, and NK cells’ cytotoxicity, which are major defense mechanisms against viral infection. Conclusion: People with co-mor-bid conditions who are more prone to COVID-19-related deaths due to immune dysregulation are likely to benefit from consuming nutri-tional supplements that enhance the immune system. We recommend clinical studies to validate AFO-202 beta glucan in COVID-19 patients to prove its efficacy in overcoming a hyper-inflammation status, thus reducing the mortality, until a definite vaccine is made available.
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